When read bread baking books and recipes, they usually specify kneading for about 10 minutes by hand. They also say that the dough should be smooth, elastic and shiny, and that the window pane test is can be used to check to see if the dough is kneaded enough. What exactly does smooth and shiny mean? When I knead dough I find that it never really becomes smooth. I always have small dimples in the dough, even after kneading the dough for more than 20 minutes. I usually stop before 30 minutes because I get scared that I will over-knead it. (Most people say this is impossible, but i'm not quite sure.) Anyway, after the first rising, it will become smooth, but the first time i knead that never happens. Should I be expecting to see the dough become smooth after the first kneading? Also, I know the dough should be elastic, but what defines elastic? Should the dough be so elastic that I have trouble separating it into two, much like I would trying to separate melted cheese on a hot pizza? I find that I can succesfully complete the window pane test, but only if I do it very carefully and slowly. Is my kneading fine the way it is, or should I knead for a longer/shorter time period? And help or advice would be appreciated.