I'm not that familiar with canned key lime pie fillings, but believe they're usually already cooked, and "no-bake." Cooked egg/milk custard in a raw cheesecake batter could lead to curdling, separating, toughness, and other problems.
So, at a guess, no.
You can certainly make a key-lime cheesecake by using zest and lime juice -- or even lime extract or flavoring. One of the nice things about cheesecake is that you can get a very good idea of what the finished cake will taste like by tasting the batter. Another is that they're fairly adapatable -- as long as you go slow and don't push your ratios too far.
Start by adapting a lemon cheesecake recipe, but use half the amounts of zest and juice and build up. Watch the lime zest as it's more bitter than lemon. Garnish with lime jellies, for sure.
Just a thought... If you give it a little mint and a little rum you can tone down the lime and end up with a "mojito" cake. That could work well.
Remember, you can garnish slices with flavored whipped cream and bring complimentary flavors in that way as well. So, for instance, lime and rum in the cake (daiquiri), mint in the cream.
Just do yourself a favor and use real key limes if you intend to make this. They are decidedly not the same as your standard lime (typically a Persian) and have a much different flavor. They can be difficult to find, depending on where you live, but worth the effort when you do find them, at least in my opinion.