I tried a search on the site but couldn't really find anything - sorry if this was answered elsewhere. I wanted to know the differences between these. In particular in Italy they have this new flour called "manitoba" which i imagine is cold-growing therefore "harder" wheat therefore more gluten. Is this correct? Italian flour has traditionally been "soft wheat" and i suppose more like cake flour. There are two types- 0 and 00 - 0 is harder to find, and supposedly for breads, though the zeros refer to how finely it;s sifted, not to the kind of flour. Cakes made with 00 that were from american recipes calling for all purpose flour need more flour and less fat to come out well. They always had "farina di grano duro" (hard wheat flour) used in some breads. It's slightly yellowish. Pane di Altamura (Puglia i think) is like this. I'm not crazy about it. But it's clearly not the same as the manitoba. I believe grano duro flour (hard wheat) is the same as semolina flour (which is translated on pasta packages as "hard durum wheat". Can anyone give me some help? I don't make pasta so i'm not interested in that, though others probably are.