Butter, Its Analysis And Adulterations

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Cornford Press
  • PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION. WHEN we published, in April, 1874, the first edition of this book, we were well aware that a process for the detec- tion and determination of foreign fats in butter was urgently needed, and that any method, based upon sound principles, would be warmly welcomed. We are happy to state that we were not disappointed in our expectations. One chemist after another critically and carefully examined our process, and it was soon adopted, with some modifications in its execution, in nearly every laboratory all over the country in which articles of food are examined. Butter analysis has, in fact, now been placed upon as sound a basis as any branch of food analysis, and the most difficult of problems is considered to be solved by every one who has a voice in this matter. A few persons have not been wanting, who from prejudice, or from other causes, have struggled against the adoption of our process, but they have, happily, been overruled. The composition of butter-fat has been closely studied during the last few years, and many interesting facts, of which we give a short account in the following pages, have been brought to light. The subject is as yet by no means exhausted, but as far as the practical part is concerned, we feel confident that no great or important improvements of the process will be introduced for some time to coine. . That this second edition is indeed an improved and augmented one will be evident from even a very cursory examination of its pages, there being but few lines which do not bear the marks of the revision. The chapter on the analysis of butter-fat is indeed entirely re-written, and brought up to the standing point we have attained through the labours of Mr. Bell, Dr. Dupre, Dr. Muter, and others. An entirely new chapter on the specific gravity of butter-fat has been added. We trust that the book will, in its new form, be as favourably received by both analysts and the trade, as it was in its first issue. We hope that a real want is satisfied by it, it giving to the analyst accurate methods for detecting adulteration, tested carefully and found sound and correct, and protecting the trade from unjust prosecutions under the Sale of Food and Drugs Act, and from the dangers of the old methods of butter analysis. LONDON AND SOUTHAMPTON, April, 1877. CONTENTS. CHAPTER .1. PAGE THE COMPOSITION OF BUTTEB 1 CHAPTEE II. DETEBMINATION OF THE CONSTITUENTS OF BUTTEB . . .11 CHAPTER III. MICBOSCOPIC EXAMINATION OF BUTTEB 16 CHAPTER IV. THE FUSING POINT . . .21 CHAPTER V. THE ANALYSIS OF BUTTEE-FAT 37 CHAPTER VI. SPECIFIC GBAVITY . . .76 BUTTER ITS ANALYSIS AND ADULTERATIONS. CHAPTER I. THE COMPOSITION OF BUTTER. BUTTER consists of the fatty portion of the milk of the cow. It is suspended in the milk in the form of minute oil globules, which, on allowing the secretion to remain undisturbed for some hours, on account of their having a lower specific gravity than the liquid in which they float, rise to the surface and form a layer of cream. It was for some time supposed that the fat globules in milk were prevented from coalescence by some kind of protecting membrane, presumedly albuminous, and this view appeared to be borne out by the fact, that the fat globules are not dissolved when the milk is agitated with ether, but only after desiccation will the milk yield up its fat to solvents...
  • Author:
    Otto Hehner
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    Cornford Press
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    Butter, Its Analysis And Adulterations


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